2.1. Core Content: Place value and the base ten system
Students refine their understanding of the base ten number system and use place value concepts of ones, tens, and hundreds to understand number relationships. They become fluent in writing and renaming numbers in a variety of ways. This fluency, combined with the understanding of place value, is a strong foundation for learning how to add and subtract two-digit numbers.
2.2. Core Content: Addition and subtraction
(Operations, Geometry/Measurement, Algebra)
Students focus on what it means to add and subtract as they become fluent with single-digit addition and subtraction facts and develop addition and subtraction procedures for two-digit numbers. Students make sense of these procedures by building on what they know about place value and number relationships and by putting together or taking apart sets of objects. This is students' first time to deal formally with step-by-step procedures (algorithms)—an important component of mathematics where a generalizable technique can be used in many similar situations. Students begin to use estimation to determine if their answers are reasonable.
2.3. Core Content: Measurement
Students understand the process of measuring length and progress from measuring length with objects such as toothpicks or craft sticks to the more practical skill of measuring length with standard units and tools such as rulers, tape measures, or meter sticks. As students are well acquainted with two-digit numbers by this point, they tell time on different types of clocks.
Students make predictions and answer questions about data as they apply their growing understanding of numbers and the operations of addition and subtraction. They extend their spatial understanding of Core Content in geometry developed in kindergarten and grade one by solving problems involving two- and three-dimensional geometric figures. Students are introduced to a few critical concepts that will become Core Content in grade three. Specifically, they begin to work with multiplication and division and learn what a fraction is.
2.5. Core Processes: Reasoning, problem solving, and communication
Students further develop the concept that doing mathematics involves solving problems and talking about what they did to solve those problems. Second-grade problems emphasize addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers, measurement, and early concepts of multiplication and division. Students communicate their mathematical thinking and make increasingly more convincing mathematical arguments. Students participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like "How did you get that?"; "Why did you use that strategy?"; and "Why is that true?" Students continue to build their mathematical vocabulary as they use correct mathematical language appropriate to grade two when discussing and refining solutions to problems.